• Gender biases in participation in academic seminar


    We have now completed our study. A preprint presenting our results can be found on arXiv.


    Our main finding is that women audience members asked absolutely and proportionally fewer questions than male audience members at academic seminars. Furthermore, our observations indicated that the gender of the first person to ask a question predicted the gender imbalance in subsequent questions, with proportionally fewer questions asked by women when a man was the first to ask a question. We propose alternative recommendations for increasing women’s visibility at these events and suggest that our results are best explained by internalized gender role stereotypes about assertiveness.




    We welcome any comments and feedback on our findings!


    If you would like more information about our study, please contact any of us with these contact details:

    Dr Alecia Carter

    Dr Gillian Sandstrom

    Dr Dieter Lukas

    Dr Alyssa Croft